The Problem With Experts Indeed

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Interesting take over on RealHDAudio taking shots at a music producer.

I read and replied to his post but it’s not publishing over there, so here is:


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Timing, timbre, and room sound.
Timing, timbre, and room sound.
Timing, timbre, and room sound.

These are things that you can’t scope or measure or chart. These are the basic building blocks of music.

This is why record producers, mastering engineers, and artists with a good ear are the experts here.

They are the only ones who understand mixed music. Not test tones. Not frequencies alone and isolated. Every bit of music is a complex stew of multiple tones, some heard, some hinted, some masked, some over/under ringing.

If the people in the studio that did the session say the 16/44 version sounds the best, then it does. If they prefer the 24/88 or 24/192 versions, they are the best. Creators privilege. Only they heard it as it was being made, aka what it originally came from. (They can all be different mixes of the song too, they don’t have to tell us that.)

The rest of us just take it for granted and enjoy it. Unless you are making the mix, or making the original sound being mixed, you are a secondary expert.

Mixed music is a tremendously complex collection of tones, all affecting each other, all containing critical timing, timbre, and layers upon layers of complex sound.

That’s why it’s so powerful. The power of music is ignored in these scientific discussions. If the 16/44 version moves you emotionally, that’s good. If the 24bit version does it more so, it’s a better version. Whichever packs the most in it is the best.


Even for sparse music, acoustic music, whatever…. more data = more sound = more vibration = more enjoyment. It’s simple.

I do think there’s a limit though. I hear some advantage at 24/192 on very good rigs but it does not make 24/88 or 24/92 sound degraded.

The pointless 16/44 is the degradation that we need to remove.


 

Too many people these days try to hear with their eyes and understand with their computer screens.

 

Which is music?

This:

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Strawberry Fields Forever, by The Beatles

 

or the audio track in this?

 

Mothership Long Term Parking

Europa

New imaging of Europa’s surface

Oh Jupiter, do you hold the secrets of the solar system?

Do the little green men reside there?


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How do you know we are Martian?


Many people point to Jupiter’s moon Europa as being the logical place to find life other than us. The crust appears to be frozen water and a vast liquid ocean might be underneath. So vast it contains many times more water than earth!


Europa-600wi


2061Jupiter is also large enough to generate heat in it’s rotating moons (I don’t really understand how but I read that far!)

So with water and heat perhaps come life as small as microbes or as large as fish, say our smartest scientists and theorists.

Well according to Arthur C. Clarke, much larger than fish, perhaps tree-sized jellyfish! Way bigger than whales, perhaps bigger than any single item on earth, with consciousness we may or may not understand.

That’s cool stuff. Hope they like us.

Hope we don’t kill them.

I’ve recently favored a different moon of Jupiter for the perfect mothership parking lot – Io.

We really don’t know what’s behind the crust while it should contain all of the other advantages of Europa. Maybe it’s not fish underneath there, maybe it’s spaceship parking.

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Io is perfectly designed for this task with it’s metallic crust that we can’t see or otherwise detect past. It basically has a shield for a crust. A shield that stops all of our current detection and scanning techniques.

Bonus the convenient naming Io to help keep it out of our conciousness. Computers have trouble indexing something named Io. Go ahead, have fun searching for Io info.


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What’s inside Io?

Music Education Helps Us For An Entire Lifetime

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What an amazing study done by Northwestern University showing that simply taking music lessons as a child can improve your cognitive ability as you age and actually offset natural degradation. Music lessons from over 40 years ago still resonated with– and improved the brain performance of– participants.

imagesThey can now measure the reaction speed of the brain to sound. They played the participants letter sounds and measured how long it took their brains to understand the sound. The results were overlayed with the lesson history of the participants.

If they had several years total of any musical lessons they were in Group A. If they had very little or no musical training in their youth they were in Group B. The total pool consisted of adults from ages 55-76.

Group A consistently processed the sound 1millisecond faster than Group B.


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If 1ms doesn’t sound like much remember it adds up. That’s 1ms per letter sound so imagine an entire conversation of 1ms pauses and you have slow and possibly degrading conversation ability.

Buy or give music lessons to your kids, grandkids, nephews, nieces, or even the neighbor’s kid. It’s one of the best things you can do for them.


 

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Sorry HAL

I’ve been tough on Ars Technica for good reason, but here’s an excellent article on the most fascinating space exploration project of the modern era.

It’s the distant Jovian [aka Jupiterian] moon Europa, and it’s not just science-fiction writers that think it’s got stories to tell. NASA is on board and has major funding on the lock until at least 2020. Our engineers are going all out designing a very ambitious set of probes and lander to actually sit on this fantastic ocean-moon, map it, and orbit it for years. Amazing stuff!


 

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Healing Senses By Depriving Them

Interesting theory here that a lazy eye can be cured or corrected with several days of absolute darkness. The lazy eye is a function of the brain not being able to control and process the eye properly, not a function of a malfunctioning eyeball.

The idea is that this total darkness reboots the visual cortex and allows the subject to emerge from the darkness and view the world in a more accurate way.

This is based on the what they call plasticity of our brains when we are younger. It’s been shown that the young brain adapts and takes on new skills faster than an older brain, in particular sensory and motor skills.

 

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The visual cortex in the rear of the brain

 

Researchers believe prolonged darkness, while maintaining everything else in normal patterns (eating, sleeping, socializing, etc.), allows the visual cortex to reset. When first presented with light it quickly decodes it and re-learns how to see.

The theory is that those that suffer from a lazy eye will see a real improvement with this non-invasive treatment.

The doctor behind it had to do a trial run, so he used himself and a volunteer to live in a light-free apartment for a week. Since they survived the trial run with no drama a larger study is being prepared.

 

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The auditory cortex is nearly wrapped around the Thalamus, which is responsible for processing all sensory input, and regulating consciousness, motor skills, and sleep.

 

It is also interesting to note that sound experiments with light depravation have shown that subjects increase their acuity to sound when in the dark – aka the blind musician concept. Researchers kept mice in the dark and did sound tests and guess what, the dark-living mice could detect more detail in sound than the lighted ones.  But in this case, once emerging from the darkness, their hearing skills went back to previous norms. They want to extend the test to see if they can permanently improve the subject’s hearing.

I generally support any therapy that is non-invasive and non-pharmaceutical, so I wish them luck in their studies.

I’d go into a dark room for a few days and have a real stay-cation especially if I believed I would emerge improved and healed. This also sounds like something someone could manage mostly by themselves with a few close companions and basic medical consultation.

Theories Into Reality

About 500 years ago some people started to sort some things about our universe out. Many were ridiculed if not persecuted so they hid this knowledge from the authorities.

This is what they knew to be true:

That is actual pictures of the moon, dark side showing, circling our beautiful planet! Outstanding view from one of NASA’s deep space cameras.

Well done Copernicus, you knew there would eventually be proof enough even for the simplest person to understand.

New Listening Test – A Proposal

It’s time for a better listening test. It’s time to use our understanding properly.

A proper listening test…

  1. needs to use all available sensory data from a modern smartwatch/ wearable CPU device
  2. needs to be portable and self-contained to allow for mobile use/multiple playback locations
  3. needs to account for the musical style preference of the test subject
  4. needs to stress half-song units as it’s shortest measurement, rejecting fast-switching between samples
  5. needs to be blind without altering the listeners normal and natural listening state
  6. needs to avoid comparisons between a memory and a real sample
  7. needs a moniker as easy to remember as ABX or Blind

 

Why is this needed?

Continue reading

The Ghost in the MP3

Excellent work by Ryan letting you hear an approximation of what they are removing from MP3 files when doing “lossy” compression.

This is what the MP3 programmers deem unimportant in your music. You can play the video with it’s own lossy audio, or go here to hear the full version of what they pull from your music to make MP3 files.

Most of what is cut out is spatial — reverbs, room sound, delays, decays, fade outs, dynamics, lots of pre-delays, layering of sounds, attacks, breathes, etc..

This is the movement and the emotional content of the song. The interacting layers is the kind of data that computer programmers (and digital internet babies) can’t quite measure, so they disregard it. That’s scientific method at work – if you can’t measure or control it, disregard it.

This is important listening and will help you to understand that hearing music is more than frequencies.

I would love to see someone do this type of experiment with a 24bit mix and a 16bit mix of the same music.

 

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Don’t take away my reverb and delays! The power of Bonzo is a result of decay, delay, and room sound.

The Complicated World of Hearing

What do you hear?  

Everything you can. 

How do you hear?  

Binaurally through the ears using mechanoreceptors in the form of tiny hairs called follicular receptors. Additional data is picked up by other mechanoreceptors throughout your skin including under every hair follicle and inside many of your joints. Our brains then use both heard and felt sound data to understand what we are facing.

What are properties of binaural sound?  Also known as sound localization, this details the time- and level-differences between both ears, such as

  • Spectral information
  • Timing analysis
  • Correlation analysis
  • Pattern matching

This overall intelligence of the 3-dimensional sound helps form the timbre, room ambience, and performance dynamics of the sound. This happens whether the sound is a lawnmower outside your window, an oboe solo, your cell phone buzzing, or all three at once.

This binaural data is all added to frequency when we determine a sound and its total quality.  Frequency is the note being played and the sound tone being generated on a measurable scale – basically wavelength at a particular moment in time.

The problem is that modern science only has reliable measurements for frequency. Frequency, besides being easily measured, is easily displayed on our 2D displays, and thus has been studied thoroughly for over 70 years. The field of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is based on the study of frequencies and human’s interactions with them.

But there’s much more happening when you hear a song you love than frequency analysis and musical recognition, and modern math has yet to capture and replicate it. This leaves people that insist on having math behind everything in the natural world in a bad place, disregarding most of this sound data as being outside their realm of importance.

But the spatial and sizing data is critical, in some ways more than frequency. Examples: You always know if what you hear is real or a cover band. If it is the original artist you also know if it’s been degraded at either the source (a bad copy), or on playback (bad headphones, bad cable, bad reception, etc.).

If it’s a playback problem you start looking for the damage to correct it asap. If it’s damaged source you usually just accept it as all you have and try your best to enjoy it. This all happens without thinking and without training or education. We just understand it as how the physical world works.

When music you love comes to you, regardless of the quality, it lands. Since you can only comfortably take in 1 version at a time you eat it up.

 

There's a lot going on inside your ears.

There’s a lot going on inside your ears.

 

Complicated stuff, right? There are lots of variables. All of this independent to you and you only. I have totally different listening spots, gear, and favorite songs than you do. We all do. Emotionally we are all different, minute by minute, week after week, living within our altering moods.

I can project that this “hearing thing” is perhaps impossible to measure with all of the variables.


 

So how else to model this? The marketplace is one way, which will both benefit and hurt the argument.

The fine art market has experts, moneyed customers, and various business interests building value on pieces of art, which as you know sell  from dollars to millions of dollars per piece. These experts hunt down and remove fakes to protect the quality of the masters at any cost.

More people bought Justin Bieber posters last year than fine art. That’s the marketplace, that’s mass duplication.

We can’t let the digital generations burn and loot the art vault with resolution assumptions based on bad science. We have a century of recorded music that could be upgraded and distributed to this centuries people, and it should be done in highest quality 21st century digital can offer.

Imagine if in 1978 two paper companies invented a printing method that output 2,200 colors at 160dpi, perfectly matching their new poster stock, and then sold millions of fine art posters at that resolution. Then for the next 40 years people walked around saying “it’s the same as the original” and couldn’t even accept there was any better quality possible. This is exactly what has happened with CD audio.

 

The point of all of this: Team Ear, baby! Don’t let technology worship cloud your views of what the human body is capable of.

The human ear has an extraordinarily large sensitivity range of a trillion to one, allowing us to hear a rocket launch or the footfalls of a cat on a carpet.  According to Werner Gitt, the ear is our highest-precision sense organ, capable of responding over twelve orders of magnitude without switching (The Wonder of Man, p.21).  Some of this sensitivity is amplified by the eardrum and middle ear ossicles, but the paper reported above shows even more fine-tuning inside the cochlea.  Gitt’s book is highly recommended for generating a profound feeling of awe over the design of our senses.  Proverbs said, “The seeing eye, and the hearing ear, the Lord has made them both” (Prov. 20:12)

Read more details on one of the studies of the cochlea here.

 

 

Your Password Or Your Soul

homey


Will there be life after passwords? We are currently drowning in them – some more than others. A fella like me might need to enter 50 different passwords of increasing complexity just to get by a week in 2014.

It’s a growing problem because hackers and their security breaches, accompanied by the illegal market for passwords farmed from cracking programs, has made it difficult to stay secure, even with such complex passwords. Putting spaces in them helps but it’s not really simplifying anything.

So what to do about it? Is there a world in which we can live with all the technology minus all the passwords? DARPA (the peeps who started the internet 40+ years ago) is working on it, and their studies are fascinating. Here’s some potential replacements for the password (aka “user authentication”):

  • Your heartbeat vibrations, as recorded by your phone
  • The way you respond to error and system messages (a personality test)
  • How your hand shakes as you hold it. Grandpa method.
  • How you write texts and emails, based on slang and favorite phrases.
  • The “visual fingerprint”: both camera inputs and the screen activity on the phone. The phone needs to see daddy (or his pocket) to turn on!
  • How you walk (your gate) as recorded by your phone over time. Walk to unlock?

Read about these programs here.

This is pretty amazing tech, with many of these methods already working on modern phones using no added hardware.

But the flip side as I see it at first blush: we are giving up our anonymity even more, giving that much more power to the machines. If my phone needed to know it was me to use it, no matter what, while that is secure it just isn’t practical. A spouse, business partner, tech support, small business, children and friends are all potential password sharing situations.

If we have to prove we are allowed into the machine beyond ways that we are able to share through human methods, then we have lost that much more control over the machine world.

But yay! The future sure will be fun! If my machine must know it’s me for security purposes, it will know it’s me for other less critical purposes.

 

Getting Audio From Video Where There Was None

Yes that’s right. Researchers have used some cool computer programming and video chip tricks to do what was previously impossible – to use video to record vibrations made by sound and then recreate the sound.

No sound recorded, just video of something like a paper bag or a pair of headphones. The camera chip manages to see tiny variations in the image which are calculated out as vibrations caused by a sound source. The computer can actually process the video frames in such a way as to reconstruct the original audio that caused the vibration!

Wow! That’s a whole new world right there. And it goes to show that sound is a physical vibration that affects all physical items in an intimate way.

There are some things stopping this from being totally magical at this early stage of research — the computer program takes hours to process the video, the video needs to be recorded at a high frame rate and the recreated sound is not nearly as high definition as the original. But it is sufficiently recognizable, enough so that they were able to Shazam the recreated audio with a match!

Just thinking of the good and bad uses for this and my mind boggles. Video investigations, surveillance, items that react to sound…

The Problem With A-B’ing And Why Neil Young Is Right About Sound Quality

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Great Tape Op post that’s thinking big about audio, music, and hearing.

The main crutch of the good enough team is what is called the double-blind listening test (shortened to ABX). When doing studies based on perception, it is the great measuring stick, and perhaps the only way they can start to squeeze some numbers out of human sensory perception.

It’s basic – here’s source A, here’s source B, maybe switch back and forth a couple of times, now make your decision. Which one was better? Can you hear a difference? Do you like one better than the other?

But as the article states, every ABX test is flawed because of it’s short sample time, and building out theories on these short ‘taste-test’ findings has led us to this mess of bad science and bad assumptions.

Since we live with and love music in intimate ways we cannot accurately write or describe, the author proposes that for any “double blind” tests to be valid the subjects should actually get to keep and live with their music collection for a month or two, then report their feelings towards it.

Much like how a sugary treat tastes better than anything next to it, but if you lived on sugary treats all month you would be feeling much worse than the person with the quality diet. Often the lesser files are close enough on initial inspection to fool enough people, and the ABX test stops right there. No one is doing long-term ABX tests, we all are doing taste tests, not nutrition tests.

Neil Young and the high-def audio movement is about getting the nutrition back into your music. There’s industrial white bread, and then there’s all those other breads. They both hold the sandwich together but living off the nutrition inside of it leads us to different outcomes.

 

Resolution, Not Frequency Range

Anyone arguing about audio and getting stuck on the overall hearing range of humans is actually missing the point.

What digital audio has really been doing is giving us lower resolutions on the sounds we can hear.

Have you ever had a car radio with a dial that won’t go to the exact volume you want? The ‘chunks’ are too big to get it exactly where you want it? That’s a lack of resolution in that volume knob. Put that lack of resolution throughout every part of the audio program and the overall effect is perhaps not easily heard, but it seems to be easily felt. – Excerpt From Save The Audio

HD audio is really about the resolution, not the frequency range. The color’s won’t be brighter, there will just be more of them available. Having more available means you leave the computer to guess about less.

The whole “no one can hear above blah blaah” is just a diversion from the fact that we can all hear and do indeed miss what the computers have been removing from our music.

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Digital Audio Verses Timbre

If an electric guitar and a piano both play a C major chord at the same volume, can you tell the difference between them?  Would you be able to discern a difference between the guitar and the piano’s version of the same note? Digital audio programmers hope you can’t.

If a violin and a plastic keyboard both hit a D and hold it out, can you hear a difference between them? What are the differences between the violin and the electronic keyboard when the result is the same note? Digital audio programmers hope you don’t know or care.

If you recorded the two tests above and played them back, would you still be able to hear a difference between them? Of course you would, but the more you degrade the digital audio by compressing in a ‘lossy’ format, the differences between the two would diminish. Somewhere around 128k lossy you’d have trouble hearing any difference between the instruments, even if in different families all together.

So how exactly do you tell the differences between the instruments, and how well they are played? We don’t even have words to describe all of what is happening there. But you can hear the difference even if the computer just sees the frequency and the volume. Most of this familiarity as to “what is making that sound” is put under the term timbre, and then most of it is thrown out in the digital realm.

Timbre is where they go looking for things to LOSE when compressing digital audio. Why do you care if it’s a piano or strings, you hear the note, you get the point, right?  The timbre is what many like Neil Young talk about as being part of the ‘soul’ of music, unquantifiable and very emotional for each person.

Lossy media compressions were developed for dial-up modems (remember those?), and to shrink the file by 80% they actually threw out most of the timbre, most of the sub-lows,  most of the highs, and most of the steps for panning and depth. Part of what you hear as mp3 artifacts are all those holes in the timbre being filled with wrong data.

BTW — the cover image is a microscopic view of an actual groove in a record. Look at the amount of vibration data the stylus picks up as it drags through that groove. 16 bits is just not enough data space to recreate all of that.

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1 Trillion Odors, or alot of Funk

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Ha, Imagine That!  I’m running all over the internet fighting bad science about hearing and music, and The Journal of Science publishes a study that says scientists have really underestimated the abilities of our nose and sense of smell.

Oh those crazy scientists, always learning more about our senses. Always so amazed at what the human body and brain can do. Sometime Simpleton.

This mirrors what is happening in the audio world. I really do think we will look back at the days (decades) of claiming “humans can’t actually perceive anything beyond 16/44 digital files” as the ignorant dark ages of hearing science. Producers and musicians have been ignored and derided in the name of digital convenience for many years now.

All it takes is one scientific paper to state something about how we can sense all kinds of other tones, timbres, and frequencies throughout our bodies, and how when receiving the full spectrum of audio, human bodies react positively. Familiarity is the first stage of listening, but we must go further than that for actual enjoyment.

But that’s not science, is it? It’s just a reality that is hard to quantize.

 

 

Bad Science + Business Interests = Trouble

Computer geeks know lots of things. The sheer breadth of stuff that geeks have crammed in their head is impressive.

But their major mistake is often not acknowledging their own ignorance. Many have come up in a world so digitally driven that they forget they are analog animals.

They forget sound, light, smell, touch are all analog. These are things computers don’t do natively.

In fact it has taken 40+ years of digital advancement to even start competing with original (analog) methods of creation.


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Hi there I’m analog


Most computer nerds know nothing about professional media production. They might know the basics or have clicked around a bit with an app, but they know nothing of producing high quality media for a living.

On the other hand, most producers these days have to know their computers, especially the parts critical to creating professional media. I believe some nerds don’t like the competition so they declare themselves experts on everything digital.

Experts are the people that do it for a living, not people tasked with spreading false information on the internet.

A computer programmer/nerd believes there is a digital solution to everything.

Then they build on this bad foundation the fatal flaw of believing a digital copy of something analog will somehow be superior. Many sub-measurements of that digital file might be superior to the analog, but remember to always step back and say “what is this trying to solve?”.

Music is created to get an emotional response from us and that requires as much audio data as possible.


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All consumer digital music, from the CD in 1978 on, has been a compromise. When you hear analog playback you are hearing a reflection of the recording, that is, an analog copy that is slightly degraded but overall intact and whole.

The original sounds hit the microphone in analog and it will hit your ears in analog.  It has not been broken up and re-assembled, and no computer decided what to keep and what to throw out.

Nature does degrade the signal to a certain extent (magnetism in a tape or physical dragging movement on vinyl), but no programmer had to determine mathematically what parts of your music to throw out.

Computer nerds trust in the computer to decide what’s important in our audio signal, more than they trust their own intuition or senses.

Computers don’t have skin, hair, ears, or emotions, so what do they know about music? Nothing. Nada.

Programmers with agendas are behind much of this nonsense, and it is all based on a total misunderstanding of how we hear, and what we actually get from music.

Familiarity is just step 1. “I can recognize that song I like!” is not the same as hearing the whole thing the way it was intended.

Check out this cool article about a guy that helped design the Pono Player.

 

 

Gravitons, Waves, and Cosmic Microwave Background Oh My!

Big news from the physics world that I can’t possibly explain accurately, but here goes anyway.

Someone discovered a trace of a magnetic signal that is believed to come from the origin of the universe, a signal created shortly after the Big Bang.

This supposedly supports both the theory of rapid universe expansion (“inflation”) and  the concept of gravitational particles referred to as “gravitons”, that we have yet to detect but theorize exist in some form.

This is fun stuff, a good science read over at Wired. It’s the continuation of experiments and theories of Einstein and Hubble that were started over 60 years ago.

gravity

gravity

Those guys weren’t deterred by ignorant facebook posters mocking everything they did ;-).

 

Oh Europa, Europa

Check it, some smart folks are looking into the feasibility of actually going to Europa, the strange moon of Jupiter that has often been pegged in fiction as the home of our alien friends.

Europa is covered in a crust of ice, and our slight bits of data seem to point to an actual liquid ocean roiling around under that crust. Jacques Cousteau is the ambassador of this group, seriously.


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NASA’s rendition of Europa’s crusty surface. No comment on if there’s a liquid ocean below.


On the con side is the seriously high amount of radiation in that part of space, so we’ll just have to wait and see if humans ever make their way to this strange moon. I think our 3rd probe will fly by around 2020, perhaps gathering enough data to launch a robotic mission. The distance is such that each step takes decades.

If aliens are living in our solar system, my personal pick is the moon next to Europa – Io.

That strange mustard yellow thing has a highly-metallic crust with who knows what underneath. Our detection methods can’t see much of anything behind that metal.

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Io. This might be a metallic moon and we can’t detect what’s under that surface.

Earth has metal in the crust but not like this. The mothership definitely has a parking spot up there.

Adding to the curiosity of Io is it’s apparent lack of craters. Since Io has very little atmosphere (like our moon) we have no explanation for the lack of craters on the surface. What is stopping the meteors from hitting Io? Or what is on the surface that can remove traces of impact?


 

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Pedal For Sex

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Here’s motivation to get (back) in shape: A recent study shows that women can pick the best cyclist by their “hotness”. That’s right, cycling  does indeed make you hotter to strange women, and your hotness appears to be directly linked to your ranking on the bike! The better you perform the hotter you are!

It’s kind of amazing (beyond the “no shit” element) that these 816 random people (2/3 women), without knowing anything about these 80 men and their comparable successes, do indeed apply a sexiness ranking equalling their sports ranking.

This definitely flies against the ‘gold-digger’ concept. With an unknown life ranking, the potential mate successfully ordered them in nearly the same order as the timekeeper.

 

The Quietest Place On Earth Will Cause You To Hallucinate In 45 Minutes

31-14_staticThe Quietest Place On Earth Will Cause You To Hallucinate In 45 Minutes – Slashdot.

Amazing group of stories about sound, and what sorts of things can be learned by removing as much of it as possible. Silence is more than golden – it is extremely rare, and these guys have it.

Tea Party Excess Threatens High-Tech Success

Interesting Op-Ed from a prominent Physics professor regarding how the political climate in the Tea Party era makes it very difficult to fund scientific research, and how critical to the past and future growth of the USA scientific research is.

Government support of science, for example, delivered the integrated circuit, the atomic clock, the global positioning system, the Internet and the touch screen, the innovations Jobs seized on to create the iPhone and iPad. And the Apple saga is only one of many high-tech success stories hidden in plain sight.

Shift Toward Minor Key

Pop Music Study Shows Shift Toward Minor Key Melodies Since 1960.

It also shows a slowing of tempo, increasing length, and more juxtaposition of positive lyrics over minor keys or introspective/negative lyrics over major keys.

The lyrical content was also studied and shows evidence of the perceived change in lyrics from 1990-present, showing more personal, confrontational, and yes violent lyrics in the last 25 years.

Interesting stuff.


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Watching Incorrect News Makes You Ignorant. Imagine That.

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Faux science from Fox news causes general scientific ignorance. This has been obvious to me but now we have data to back it up.

I’ve posted this before but it bears screaming digitally:

Global warming/climate change is not equivalent to your local weather forecast.

imagesIdiots that rant about global warming being a hoax on the days it’s snowing in their neighborhood (and use the snowfall as their evidence) are idiots. Pure idiots. How?

  • By not understanding the size of the planet verse their local weather system; by not understanding that climate change causes extremes in all ways;
  • By not understanding that the weather changes everywhere all the time, which is why we have averages and statistical computer programming analyzing everyone’s neighborhood (not just yours you stupid yahoo);
  • By believing that science/math/physics is open to ‘opinion’;
  • By not knowing that the scientific method addresses doubt and skepticism immediately. The very nature of the scientific method is to work from a position of doubt and prove things to be not true.

I know I’m screaming into an empty room because people who watch Fox news weren’t very interested in science or math class to begin with. But just sayin (again).